国家科学学院,工程和医学(美国国家科学院)发表的一份出版前国家纳米技术倡议的四年期回顾:纳米科学,应用和商业化。国家纳米技术协调办公室(NNCO)要求美国国家科学院形成特别指定委员会进行的国家纳米技术计划(NNI)根据2003年21世纪纳米技术研究和发展法案,授权NNI协调26个联邦机构的纳米技术相关的研究和开发(R&d)的四年一次的审查。The statement of task was to analyze the relative position of the U.S. nanotechnology program relative to the programs of other nations, determine whether NNI coordination should continue, and if it should, identify how to improve the NNI’s R&D strategy and R&D portfolio to enhance further the economic prosperity and national security of the United States. According to the report, the United States maintains a strong nanoscience and technology R&D program. The report states that this program’s coordination is becoming more critical in the current era of intensifying global competition from developed nations such as Japan and those within the European Union, and from developing nations such as India and especially China. In the latter case, the report notes that “researchers are witnessing aggressive, and in many cases effective, planning of a national R&D strategy that seeks to harvest the economic, medical, and national security benefits of nanotechnology as quickly as possible.” This, combined with very large investments in state-of-the-art facilities and the allocation of substantial resources for the education, training, and attraction of top research international talent, “is clearly intended to result in Chinese leadership of this critically important area of technology.” The report identifies changes to NNI intended to “promote a resurgence of the nation’s nanotechnology program and enable it to respond to the dynamic changes of the new global research environment in which it functions.”