据报道在我们2020年2月5，blog item, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®）阈限值化学物质（TLV®-CS）委员会列入2020年的化学物质，并正在研究其他问题清单上的碳纳米管。被放置在所研究列表上显示的TLV®-CS委员会选定的碳纳米管的阈限值的发展（TLV®). ACGIH®has now released itstwo-tier under study list。一级列表的化学物质和自然史l agents that may move forward as a notice of intended change (NIC) or notice of intent to establish (NIE) in the upcoming year, based on their status in the development process. Tier 2 consists of those chemical substances and physical agents that will not move forward, but will either remain on or be removed from the under study list for the next year. Carbon nanotubes are included in Tier 2. If carbon nanotubes are included on the2021under study list, stakeholders will have an opportunity to submit substantive data and comments.
The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) recently published two guidance documents in its series on testing and assessment:
- 指导文件水产和纳米材料的沉积物毒理试验betway官方网站(No. 317): The guidance document addresses practical aspects of carrying out valid tests with manufactured nanomaterials, as well as modifications or additions to OECD Test Guideline procedures intended to improve incrementally the accuracy, intra-laboratory repeatability, inter-laboratory reproducibility, and intra-laboratory reproducibility of test results. The guidance document considers initial characterization of test materials, preparation of test dispersion, monitoring the behavior of manufactured nanomaterials in the test dispersion throughout the duration of the test, and quantifying exposure and exposure-response. The focus of the guidance document is on measurements of worst-case hazard using traditional population level endpoints, including survival, growth, and reproduction, and does not provide guidance on making formal risk assessments. OECD states that since the focus is on the most conservative assessment of hazard, the guidance within involves efforts to disperse manufactured nanomaterials into laboratory media that may not always be realistic to environmental dispersal.
- Guidance Document for the Testing of Dissolution and Dispersion Stability of Nanomaterials and the Use of the Data for Further Environmental Testing and Assessment Strategies(Excel) (No. 318): The guidance document provides guidance for the methods to address dissolution rate and dispersion stability for nanomaterials, with a focus on environmental aqueous media. OECD states that the guidance provided is relevant for solids in the nanoscale, as well as their aggregates and agglomerates, and it focuses on their fate and behavior in aqueous media. In particular, the guidance document presents the influence of various experimental conditions on the performance and outcomes of the discussed methods. In addition, the guidance document addresses modifications or additions to the methods and aims to give support for the interpretation of the test results.
On July 23, 2020, the European Union (EU) Observatory for Nanomaterials (EUON) published a Nanopinion entitled “betway官方网站材料制造由纳米级颗粒：前进用的植物”布莱斯·塔迪博士，研究员，生物基胶体与材料研究组 - 芬兰的阿尔托大学。betway官方网站塔迪博士指出，生物纳米材料，如纳米纤维素“显示，在形成高性能材料，有潜betway官方网站力替代塑料很大的希望。”除了代替有害合成材料，如单次使用的，一次性的材料，这些生物材料可以在汽车部件，3D-可印刷betway官方网站bioinks，反射涂层，粘合剂和高强度的细丝可以使用。据迟到的博士，这些生物的纳米粒子提供了大规模纳米制造的使用水性体系的承诺。迟到的博士指出，“[U]唱水作为组装这些纤维导致材料类型的无数，日益通用的性质，溶剂如与正在进行的全球纳米材料的研究和发展相关联。”betway官方网站随着纳米技术的向前移动领域，整合利用绿色，生物基的纳米粒子会越来越有利，特别是对于具有很短的使用寿命材料，如包装，一次性使用个人防护装备，并一次性过滤器。betway官方网站塔迪博士认为，“寻找方法来促进纳米制造将成为为这些优秀的纳米粒子，这是材料科学的未来发展至关重要的发展很重要。”betway官方网站
The2020年七月issueof the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)Environmental Factor包括在一个项new database that facilitates nanomaterial research。根据这篇文章，NIEHS受助构建PubVINAS“大型数据库结构，化学性质，并且在705对纳米材料的活动信息的，覆盖11的材料类型。”betway官方网站文章指出，对每种材料的大量数据“使科学家使用新的纳米材料的结构来预测其关键特性和潜在毒性。”betway官方网站PubVINAS“借鉴了数千篇科学论文，并包含705个独特的纳米材料，这些材料1365和的物理化学性质，以及2386个数据点与它们的生物活性，包括是否将纳米材料betway官方网站可以被细胞吸收，并导致细胞死亡。纳米结构被存储为可通过全球研究人员可以下载数据文件“。NIEHS的文章引用了Nature Communicationsarticle, “Construction of a web-based nanomaterial database by big data curation and modeling friendly nanostructure annotations。”
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has begun a公众咨询on a draft document entitled “EFSA Guidance on Technical Requirements for Regulated Food and Feed Product Applications to Establish the Presence of Small Particles Including Nanoparticles.” The draft Guidance sets out information requirements for applications in the regulated food and feed product areas and establishes criteria for assessing the presence of a fraction of small particles. EFSA states that these requirements apply to particles requiring specific assessment at the nanoscale in conventional materials that do not meet the definition of engineered nanomaterial as set out in the Novel Food Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. The draft Guidance outlines appraisal criteria, grouped in three sections, to confirm whether the conventional risk assessment should be complemented with nanospecific considerations. The first group addresses solubility and dissolution rate as key physicochemical properties to assess whether consumers will be exposed to particles. The second group establishes the information requirements for assessing whether the conventional material contains a fraction or consists of small particles, and its characterization. The third group describes the information to be presented for existing safety studies to demonstrate that the fraction of small particles, including particles at the nanoscale, has been properly evaluated. In addition, to guide the appraisal of existing safety studies, the draft Guidance provides recommendations for fulfilling the data gaps while minimizing the need for conducting new animal studies. EFSA states that the draft Guidance complements the “Guidance on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology” adopted by the EFSA Scientific Committee in 2018. It advises applicants to consult both guidance documents before conducting new studies. Comments are due2020年9月9日。
OnAugust 19 and 20, 2020, the American National Standards Institute Nanotechnology Standards Panel (ANSI-NSP) will hold avirtual workshop on advanced materials。ANSI growi先进材料betway官方网站ng interest as there is increasing recognition that size alone does not define the unique properties of a material. More and more, governments and organizations that originally focused on nanomaterials are now also focusing on advanced materials and emerging technologies. The workshop will focus on whether existing nanotechnology standards bodies should address advanced materials and how the gaps and needs relative to advanced materials standards can best be identified and prioritized. Panelists will include representatives from the National Nanotechnology Coordination Office (NNCO), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), The Chemours Company, the Society of Toxicology, and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). ANSI-NSP invites interested stakeholders, including industry, government representatives, representatives from non-governmental organizations, and academics, to participate. Online registration is now open.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published two nanotechnology standards:
- ISO 21363:2020, “纳米技术 - 颗粒尺寸和形状分布的测量通过透射电子显微镜“：该标准规定了如何捕捉，测量和分析透射电子显微镜图像，以获得纳米级颗粒的尺寸和形状分布。根据ISO，标准是广泛地适用于纳米物体，以及与尺寸小于100纳米（nm）较大的颗粒。ISO规定，该方法的准确工作范围取决于所要求的不确定性并且在透射电子显微镜的性能。这些元件可以根据在本文档中描述的要求进行评估;和
- ISO/TS 21975:2020, “纳米技术 - 聚合物纳米复合薄膜用于食品包装的具有阻隔性能 - 规范特性和测量方法的”: The standard specifies characteristics, including barrier properties, to be measured of polymeric nanocomposite films used for improving food packaging. ISO states that the barrier properties cover gas (oxygen), water vapor transmission, and ultraviolet (UV)-Vis light transparency. The standard also describes the relevant measurement methods. ISO notes that the standard addresses neither safety and health issues related to the food packaging nor environmental aspects.
The Nanodatabase has posted a June 1, 2020,press release宣布，它已经增加在其数据库产品编号4000。根据新闻稿，白银仍然是最经常报道的纳米材料，钛和二氧化钛的第二个和第三个最常见。betway官方网站该新闻稿指出，将近3000种产品，纳米材料的类型是未知的，但是。betway官方网站该数据库包括健康和健身类（2,310产品，略多于800是个人护理产品，以及约650体育用品产品）以及家庭和花园（大约700种产品，其中330清洁产品）。betway必威手机版其他数据库类别包括家电，汽车，电子和计算机，食品和饮料，儿童用品，以及“无法归类。”该新闻稿指出纳米材料悬浮在液体中1617种产品，以及在这些产品中的75％中，betway官方网站纳米材料是未知的，而二氧化钛，银，和二氧化硅一小帐户中的产品的15％以上悬浮在液体中。环境工程丹麦系技术大学（DTU环境），丹麦生态理事会和丹麦消费者委员会制定的Nanodatabase。
On July 1, 2020, the European Union (EU) Observatory for Nanomaterials (EUON) published a Nanopinion entitled “Polymer based nanocomposites – enabling innovation, resource efficiency and helping to fight climate change” by Dr. Sabine Lindner, Consumer and Environmental Affairs, PlasticsEurope Deutschland e.V. Dr. Lindner notes how the addition of nanoscale particles to plastic matrices can improve the properties of products such as plastic packaging for food. According to Dr. Lindner, PlasticsEurope and the European Chemical Industry Council (CEFIC) Food Contact Additives (FCA), the food additive sector group of CEFIC, collaborated with the Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging (IVV) to examine whether nanoparticles can migrate from plastic packaging into the packaged foodstuff. Three plastic nanocomposites containing nanoscale silver, titanium nitride, and laponite were investigated for their potential to release nanoparticulates under stress conditions into food simulants. Dr. Lindner states: “In a nutshell, the studies demonstrated, that nanoparticles which are completely encapsulated in the host polymer matrix do not have a potential to migrate into food and therefore consumers will not be exposed to nanoparticles from food contact polymers when those are completely embedded in polymer and the contact surface is not altered by mechanical surface stress during application.”
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)announcedon July 2, 2020, that it registered NSPW Nanosilver as a new active ingredient that helps suppress odor-causing bacteria, and algae, fungus, mold, and mildew that can cause deterioration or staining in textiles. EPA notes that NSPW Nanosilver is registered only for use in specified textiles, including fabrics, sportswear, footwear, linens, and awnings. NSPW Nanosilver is the active ingredient in the pesticide product POLYGUARD-NSPW MASTER BATCH (Polyguard). According to EPA, Polyguard will be formulated as a master batch, meaning that NSPW Nanosilver will be embedded within plastic beads or pellets. EPA states that these beads or pellets “are polymeric materials similar to nylon or polyester which are incorporated/infused into textiles through a closed-loop manufacturing process called extrusion.” Once introduced into the process, no beads or pellets can escape into the environment. Available data indicate that the leach rate of nanosilver derived from NSPW Nanosilver-treated textiles is below the limit of detection; the potential for environmental exposure of the polymer is presumed to be negligible.
EPA注意到NSPW纳米银是在2015年授予的用作材料的纺织品和塑料防腐剂先前有条件注册的活性成分。betway官方网站据报道在2017年我们5月31日，memorandum, that registration was challenged, however, and the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit vacated it on grounds that EPA’s public interest finding for granting the registration was unsupported in the record. EPA states that the current action has a modified use pattern that is expected to limit exposures compared to the previous conditional registration. According to EPA, additional data were submitted and reviewed to update the risk assessment for NSPW Nanosilver, allowing for an unconditional registration.
环保局指出，根据其对人类健康和生态风险评价，它已经确定了新的活性成分，NSPW纳米银，满足根据联邦杀虫剂，杀真菌剂和灭鼠剂法（FIFRA）的监管标准，用作原料的纺织品防腐剂betway官方网站在POLYGUARD。虽然EPA包括链接Docket ID EPA-HQ-OPP-2020-0043to view the product registration and response to comments, those materials are not yet posted in the docket.